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How To Cite References Using APA Style

Examples of APA Citation Style for use in Reference Lists.

APA 6th Edition Examples - Audiovisual Media

The following are interpretations based on rules put forth by the APA Publication Manual, 6th Edition. The Manual does not speak specifically to many types of online visual resources.

General rules

Always check your URL to make sure it works

Follow standard form for author’s name when possible (Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial.)

Use n.d. if no date exists

Do not use a URL if material was retrieved from a library database. Use the library database name.

  • Online Video Blog Post (YouTube, TED, Vimeo, TeacherTube, etc).

Use the designated shareable link as the URL, such as the Share URL in YouTube.

For Corporate Author or Channel, use as the Author. Use upload date as date if no creation date is available

Author Last Name, Author First Initial. Author Middle Initial. (Year, Month Date). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL

TEDtalksDirector. (2009, February 16). Barry Schwartz: The real crisis? We stopped being wise [Video file]. Retrieved from

  • Image found in a free online resource

To assure copyright compliance, use a resource such as Flickr’s Creative Commons

Creator’s last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Role of creator). (Year of creation). Description or title of image. [Type of work]. Retrieved from URL.


Comas, J. S. (Photographer). (2007). Jordi Comas Teaching. [Digital Image]. Retrieved from

Konopacki. (Cartoonist). Overcrowding. [Cartoon]. Retrieved from

  • Image found in a library database

If it is a single image you found in a search in a library database. If there are credits under the image for the author or the original publisher, that should be noted in the citation.

Creator name. (Role of creator). (Year of creation). Description or title of image. [Type of work]. Retrieved from Database Name.

Cusic-McClatchy, C. C. (Photographer). (2009). Middle School Sex Education Class. [Digital Image]. Retrieved from GALE Opposing Viewpoints in Context.

  • If the image is part of an article, cite the source in your bibliography and follow the discussion of the image with an in-text reference to the published source. For non-standard presentation, such as Powerpoint, Wiki, etc., follow the reproduction of the image with a caption that includes (Article Author(s) Last Name, Year, p. xx, title of image)

Example: This would appear immediately following the reference to the image from the article, book, etc.

(Andrews & Sayers, 2006, p. 35, Table 1)

This would be the citation for the reference:

Andrews, P. & Sayers, J. (2006). Conditions for learning: Part 3. Mathematics Teaching, 199. 34-38. Retrieved from ProQuest Research Library.

  • Music recording

Artist. (Year) Name of Song. On Name of Collection/Album [Medium of recording]. City, State: Recording Label Company.

Coldplay. (2000). Trouble. On Parachutes [iTunes]. EMI Records Ltd. Retrieved from

  • Podcast

Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from

  • Television show episode

Egan, D. (Writer), & Alexander, J. (Director). (2005). Failure to communicate [Television series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer), House. New York, NY: Fox Broadcasting.

  • Live television broadcast

Crystal, L. (Executive Producer). (1993, October 11). The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour [Television broadcast]. New York and Washington, DC: Public Broadcasting Service.

  • Motion Picture/Video

Grey, B., King, G., & Pitt, B. (Producers), & Scorsese, M. (Director). (2006). The Departed [Motion Picture]. United States: Plan B Entertainment.

More APA Style Guides

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) is available at any Wayne State library reference desk. Call number is BF 76.7 .P83 2010
You can now purchase an individual ebook of the APA Publication Manual, 6th Edition, compatible with Kindle File, ipad, Android, PC and Mac.