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How To Cite References Using APA Style

Examples of APA Citation Style for use in Reference Lists.

APA 7th Edition Examples - Audio or Visual Works

The following are interpretations based on rules put forth by the APA Publication Manual, 7th Edition. The Manual does not speak specifically to many types of online visual resources.

General rules

Always check your URL to make sure it works

Follow standard form for author’s name when possible (Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial.)

Use n.d. if no date exists

Do not use a URL if material was retrieved from a library database. Use the library database name.

Describe the audio-visual work in square brackets after the title, such as [Film]

  • YouTube or other streaming video

Use the designated shareable link as the URL, such as the Share URL in YouTube.

For Corporate Author or Channel, use as the Author. Use upload date as date if no creation date is available

Author Last Name, Author First Initial. Author Middle Initial. (Year, Month Date). Title of video [Video]. Name of Host Site. URL

NowYouKnowAbout. (2017, September 11). The life story of Vincent van Gogh [Video]. YouTube.

  • TED Talk

Aral, S. (2018, November). How we can protect truth in an age of misinformation [Video]. TED.

  • Image found in a free online resource

To assure copyright compliance, use a resource such as Flickr’s Creative Commons 

Creator’s last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Role of creator). (Year of creation). Description or title of image. [Type of work]. URL.


Comas, J. S. (Photographer). (2007). Jordi Comas Teaching. [Photograph].

Konopacki. (Cartoonist). Overcrowding. [Cartoon].

  • Image found in a library database

If it is a single image you found in a search in a library database. If there are credits under the image for the author or the original publisher, that should be noted in the citation.

Creator name. (Year of creation). Description or title of image. [Type of work]. Database Name.

Cusic-McClatchy, C. C. (2009). Middle School Sex Education Class. [Photograph]. GALE Opposing Viewpoints in Context.

  • If the image is part of an article, cite the source in your bibliography and follow the discussion of the image with an in-text reference to the published source. For non-standard presentation, such as Powerpoint, Wiki, etc., follow the reproduction of the image with a caption that includes (Article Author(s) Last Name, Year, p. xx, title of image)

Example: This would appear immediately following the reference to the image from the article, book, etc.

(Andrews & Sayers, 2006, p. 35, Table 1)

This would be the citation for the reference:

Andrews, P. & Sayers, J. (2006). Conditions for learning: Part 3. Mathematics Teaching, 199. 34-38. ProQuest Research Library.

  • Single Song or track

Artist. (Year) Name of Song. On Name of Collection/Album [Song]. Recording Label Company.

Include a URL if that is the only means of retrieval, such as SoundCloud or their website.

Fizzle and the Shlups. (2019, November 1). Haircut [Song]. On Mitochondriacs.

  • Television show episode

Egan, D. (Writer), & Alexander, J. (Director). (2006, January 10). Failure to communicate (Season 2, Episode 10) [TV series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer), House. Fox Broadcasting.

  • Live television broadcast

Crystal, L. (Executive Producer). (1993, October 11). The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour [Television broadcast]. Public Broadcasting Service.

  • Film or Video

Grey, B., King, G., & Pitt, B. (Producers), & Scorsese, M. (Director). (2006). The Departed [Film]. Plan B Entertainment.

More APA Style Guides

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) is available at any Wayne State library reference desk. Call number is BF 76.7 .P83 2020