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How To Cite References Using APA Style

Examples of APA Citation Style for use in Reference Lists.

APA 7th Edition: Lectures, Lecture Notes, PowerPoints & Handouts

General Guidelines for Citing Class Resources

Works that appear in a Learning Management System, like Canvas, are recoverable and viewable only by the instructor and fellow students, not the general public. Therefore, in addition to using standard citation formats, include the name of the LMS and the login URL for the LMS. Adding information regarding the course name, and location of the material in the Canvas course site, will help with identifying the original material being sourced in the text or reference list.

  • Lecture notes

According to formal APA guidelines, course lecture notes taken by the student are considered a form of personal communications (unpublished, ‘non-recoverable data’). As such, they would only be listed in an in-text citation and not in the reference list.

In Text (narrative): In a lecture on January 15, 2020, to a COM 1010 class, Professor Smith said…(COM 1010 lecture, January 15, 2020).

In Text (parenthetical): A COM 1010 lecture on January 15, 2020 noted that ...(Smith, A. B., COM 1010 lecture, January 15, 2020).

However, some professors may require a reference entry. If that is the case, you could use an entry similar to the one below. Use your own judgment, but remember: when in doubt, ask for your professor’s opinion. There are NO formal APA guidelines for this type of material.

Reference (if used): Smith, A. B. (2020, January 15). COM 1010 Course Lecture.

*Citation examples adapted from Durham College

Note: If you learned about a topic through a classroom lecture, it would be preferable to cite the research on which the instructor based the lecture.

  • Professor's PowerPoint or Lecture Notes posted in Canvas 

Use this format when it is obvious the Professor is the author of the PowerPoint or Lecture Notes.

In Text (narrative): Johnston (2020) stated the differences between....

In Text (parenthetical): The differences between ... (Johnston, 2020).

Reference for Lecture Notes: 

Johnston, G. A. (2020, February 12). [Lecture notes on genetic sequencing]. BIO 3040. Canvas. https://canvas.wayne.edu.

Reference for PowerPoint:

Johnston, G. A. (2020). Ethical consequences of genetic sequencing. [PowerPoint slides]. BIO 3040. Canvas. https://canvas.wayne.edu.

  • PowerPoint or Lecture Notes posted in Canvas 

Use this format when you do not know who is the original author of the PowerPoint or Lecture Notes. Try to provide as much information as possible about the location of the material in your Canvas course site. It is suggested (for clarity) you only use a parenthetical in-text citation for this type of material. This example assumes there is no date on the material. If there is date information, replace the n.d. with the date information).

In Text (parenthetical): Velocity can be easily observed and measured ... (Wayne State University, n.d., PHY 1010).

Reference for Lecture Notes: 

Wayne State University (n.d.). Module 3: Velocity. In BIO 3040: Winter 2020 [Class lecture handout]. Canvas. https://canvas.wayne.edu.

Reference for PowerPoint:

Wayne State University (n.d.). Module 3: Velocity. In BIO 3040: Winter 2020 [PowerPoint Slides]. Canvas. https://canvas.wayne.edu.