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How to Cite References Using Chicago Style/Turabian

Chicago Style 17th Edition Examples - Electronic Resources

Listed below are examples of proper formatting of bibliographic references (B) and a corresponding footnote/endnote (N) for each source type.

  • General Format for Electronic Sources

B:   Last Name, First Name. "Title of Webpage." Name of Website. Owner or sponsor of the Website. Publication/Last Modified date (if available). Access date. URL.

N:   1. First Name Last Name, "Title of Webpage," Name of Website, Owner or sponsor of the Website, publication/last modified date (if available), access date, URL.

  • Webpage with Author and Date

B:   Heck, Jr., Richard G. "About the Philosophical Gourmet Report." Last modified August 5, 2016. Accessed February 15, 2019.

N:   1. Richard G. Heck, Jr., "About the Philosophical Gourmet Report," last modified August 5, 2016, accessed February 15, 2019,

  • Webpage with Date, but no Author.

B:   CNN. "Illinois Governor Wants to 'Fumigate' State's Government." CNN online. Last modified January 30, 2009. Accessed April 9, 2018.

N:   2. "Illinois Governor Wants to 'Fumigate' State's Government," CNN online, CNN, last modified January 30, 2009, accessed April 9, 2018,

  • Webpage with unknown Author and Date

B:   "Band." Casa de Calexico. Accessed October 27, 2017.

N:   3. "Band," Casa de Calexico, accessed October 27, 2017,

  • Blog post (if the word 'blog' is included in the title there is no need to include blog in parentheses)

B:   Germano, William. "Futurist Shock." Lingua Franca (blog). Chronicle of Higher Education, February 15, 2017.

N:   4. William Germano, "Futurist Shock," Lingua Franca (blog), Chronicle of Higher Education, February 15, 2017,

  • Comment on a blog

B:   Woodring, Susan. September 17, 2010, comment on J. Robert Lennon, "How Do You Revise?." Ward Six (blog), September 16, 2010.

N:   5. Susan Woodring, September 17, 2010, comment on J. Robert Lennon, "How Do You Revise?," Ward Six (blog), September 16, 2010,

  • Entire Blog (list in bibliography under the name of the editor, if any, or the title of the blog)

B:   Lingua Franca (blog). The Chronicle of Higher Education.

  • Social media content (because social media is subject to editing and deletion, authors are advised to retain a copy of anything they cite)

B:   O'Brien, Conan (@ConanOBrien). "In honor of Earth Day, I'm recycling my tweets." Twitter, April 22, 2015, 11:10 a.m.

N:   6. Conan O'Brien (@ConanOBrien), "In honor of Earth Day, I'm recycling my tweets," Twitter, April 22, 2015, 11:10 a.m.,

  • Podcast (if the word 'podcast' is included in the title there is no need to repeat it after that title)

B:   Cole, Sean and Ira Glass. "622: Who You Gonna Call?." This American Life. Produced by WBEZ. August 4, 2017. Podcast, MP3 audio, 1:00:27. Accessed October 21, 2017.

N:   7. Sean Cole and Ira Glass, "622: Who You Gonna Call?," August 4, 2017, in This American Life, produced by WBEZ, podcast, MP3 audio, 1:00:27, accessed October 21, 2017,

  • Blank Form for Online Multimedia 

B:   Last Name, First Name of Performer, Writer or Creator. Title of Text. Indication of Medium/Format, Running time. Publication date. URL.

N:   8. First Name Last Name of Performer, Writer, or Creator, Title of Text, indication of format/medium, running time, publication date, URL.

More on citing Web sources: