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How to Cite References Using Chicago Style/Turabian

General Format of Footnotes/Endnotes


  • Note numbers should begin with “1.” and follow consecutively throughout a given paper.


  • In the text:
    • Note numbers are superscripted.
    • Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer and should be placed after all punctuation, except for the dash.


  • In the notes themselves:
    • Note numbers are full-sized, not raised, and followed by a period.
    • Lines within a footnote should be formatted flush left. Place commentary after source documentation when a footnote contains both; separate commentary and documentation by a period.
      • In parenthetical citation, separate documentation from brief commentary with a semicolon.


  • Shortened notes:​​​
  • If you cite the same source more than once on the same page, you don't have to write out a full note again. Instead, you can use a shortened note with the basic information:
  • Example of a full note: 1. Zadie Smith, Swing Time (New York: Penguin Press, 2016), 315–16.
  • Example of a shortened note for the same source: 2. Smith, Swing Time, 320.